Schwartauer Allee 9a und 9b - The Isaac family
The Isaac family, also called Isaac-Sachs or simply Sachs, lived in the large apartment building at Schwartauer Allee 9a and 9b.
David Isaac, born on 15 September 1877 in Mehren near Altenkirchen in Westerwald, came to Lübeck in 1906. He and his younger brother, Bernhard, ran a business together dealing with cattle and horses, which became one of the largest livestock dealers in Northern Germany.
David Isaac, his wife Selma, née Bernhard, and both their children lived on the ground floor on the left half of the building 9a. Selma Isaac was born on 30 November 1884 in Mönchen-Gladbach and came to Lübeck in 1909. On 2 July 1910 their daughter Hildegard was born here, their son Werner Ludwig on 15 February 1922.
The other half, 9b, belonged to Bernhard Isaac, who lived there on the first floor with his wife Jenny and also with their two children. Bernhard was born in Mehren on 3 June 1886. Jenny Isaac, née Bernhard, was a sister of Selma Isaac and was born on 16 February 1892. Their son Kurt was born on 9 March 1921, their daughter Helga Lori on 18 January 1925, both here in Lübeck.
We know that Selma was active in the Israelite Women’s Association, namely in the food commission in 1931/32.
Hildegard Isaac presumably attended Ernestinenschule or Lyzeum am Falkenplatz (translator’s note: both girls’ high schools) and finished school passing the Abitur, the German university-entrance examination. In 1931 she left Lübeck and went to Bonn to study dentistry. In the mid-thirties she emigrated to Palestine and later went to live in Israel with her husband and two children.
Starting in 1933 the Isaac family massively felt the effects of the anti-Jewish measures. The non-denominational school, which their youngest daughter Helga attended, was shut down. Her cousin, Hildegard, who attended university, was affected by the „Law against the foreign influence on German schools and universities” of April 1933. She obviously drew her own conclusions at once as to the situation and left Germany.
9 November 1938 destroyed the lives of both families. The two men as well as Werner Ludwig were arrested and placed in “protective custody” on 10 November 1938 and on 12 November they were taken from the Lübeck prison Lauerhof to KZ (concentration camp) Sachsenhausen, north of Berlin. David Isaac returned to Lübeck on 22 November 1938, but as a diabetic the consequences of maltreatment and inadequate care resulted in further damaging his health so much that in February 1939 he had to be taken to hospital and died on 23 February 1939.
Werner had already left school and started training with Schneider, Graphische Maschinen- und Apparatebau, an engineering firm for graphical machines and equipment. Kurt had to leave the Katharineum after 9 November 1938. Both boys were able to escape to England in December 1939. Among the documents of the London Wiener Library you can find copies of postcards written by Werner and Kurt Isaak as well as their friend Harry Goldenberg (b.1925) to their families while on one of the first Kinder (children) transports via the Netherlands.
My dears, luckily we have crossed the border. My suitcase was not opened. In Oldenzaal (Holland) we were welcomed grandly, we got warm meals and soda. The press was also there, we were photographed. I’m writing against the wall, therefore my Klaue (slang for bad handwriting). At 12 o’clock we’ll depart from Hoek. Lots of love and kisses Werner. Lots of love from Harry.
My dears, for us to mail a letter is cheap, so I’m already writing again. The journey will be great. We we’re alive and very happy. We have already made friends too. The reception in Holland was excellent and the food was super. Regards to everyone, and above all to Helga, I had nearly forgotten to send her greetings. All the food is strictly koscher. Of my provisions I have hardly eaten anything. Now lots of love and kisses Kurt. Excuse my bad handwriting.
Frau H.G., Lübeck
Dear Mum! We are already on our way to Rotterdam. In Holland we were welcomed very well. At the border we had warm meals. Otherwise we are very jolly and merry. Regards and a kiss from H. Best wishes Werner
(Harry Goldenberg sent this third postcard to his mother Hedwig Goldenberg, née Ewert. Her address was St. Annen-Straße 13.)
Because of the records in file 125 of the police administration a certain course of events, which occurred in 1939, can be reconstructed. A certain Hugo Sachs, resident at Lettow-Vorbeckstrasse 10, Lübeck, sent a complaint to the Oberbürgermeister (the mayor) that "non-Aryans at Schwartauer Allee used the Aryan name Sachs". Police investigations finally showed that it was not so. On 20 June 1939 it was noted: " Herr Inspektor Niemann! Frau Isaak communicated with us by phone today that her husband David Isaak, Schwartauer Allee 9a, had died on 23 Feb. this year. Furthermore her brother-in-law Bernhard Isaak, Schwartauer Allee 9b, had emigrated. They had both been summoned in a case of using proper names. Lübeck, 20 June 1939 signature " (Memo concerning the police investigations of Hugo Sachs’ accusations...)
On 30 May 1939 Bernhard Isaac with his wife and daughter Helga were able to leave Germany on the ship Costa Rica. Why Selma Isaac did not join her sister and brother-in-law we can only speculate. She was 57 years old, when she was forced to leave her home.
Verzeichnis der Quellen außerhalb der Standardfachliteratur:
- Adressbücher und Meldekartei der Hansestadt Lübeck
- Archiv der Hansestadt Lübeck, Staatliche Polizeiverwaltung 109, 110, 124, 125, 126, Schul- und Kultusverwaltung 375
- Buch der Erinnerung, Die ins Baltikum deportierten deutschen, österreichischen und tschechoslowakischen Juden, bearbeitet von Wolfgang Scheffler und Diana Schulle, München 2003
- Datenpool JSHD der Forschungsstelle "Juden in Schleswig-Holstein" an der Universität Flensburg
- Hans Hirsch Jakobson, Das tragische Schicksal einer Familie in Riga 1941-1945, Stockholm 1992 (unveröffentlicht)
- Josef Katz, Erinnerungen eines Überlebenden, Kiel 1988
- Landesarchiv Schleswig, Abt. 352 Kiel, 8264, 13654, 7265, 7219, 9573, 14555, 12968 und Abt. 761, 12239 und 12240
- Landgericht Hamburg vom 29.12.1951, (50) 14/50, Lfd. Nr. 307: NS-Gewaltverbrechen in Lagern / Riga Lettland
- Memorbuch zum Gedenken an die jüdischen, in der Schoa umgekommenen Schleswig-Holsteiner und Schleswig-Holsteinerinnen, hrsg. v. Miriam Gillis-Carlebach, Hamburg 1996
- Albrecht Schreiber, Zwischen Davidstern und Doppeladler, Illustrierte Chronik der Juden in Moisling und Lübeck, Lübeck 1992
- Yad Vashem, The Central Database of Shoah Victims Names
- Richard J. Yashek (Jürgen Jaschek), Die Geschichte meines Lebens, Wie ein zwölfjähriger Junge aus Lübeck und Bad Schwartau die Konzentrationslager überlebte, 1996 (deutsche Übersetzung 1998)
- Zeitzeugengespräche und Schriftwechsel, vor allem mit Erika Richter, geborene Kendziorek und ihrem Sohn (seit 1997)
- Novemberprogrom 1938, Die Augenzeugenberichte der Wiener Library, London, Herausgegeben von Ben Barkow, Raphael Gross, Michael Lenarz, Frankfurt a.M. 2008, S.699 ff
Heidemarie Kugler-Weiemann, 2008